Articles Tagués ‘Conakry’
11 mars 2013 Laisser un commentaire
Tout en ayant à l’idée, qu’il n’y a guères une oeuvre de consolidation humaine, une démarche politique, encore moins une idéologie, et un idéal, dans le cadre bien évidemment d’un régime démocratique, qui puissent échapper à un certain formalisme, requis soit en amont ou en aval, de tout processus, je ne cesse d’entrevoir la situation politique Guinéenne, selon sa probable duplicité forgée sur les entraves qui n’ont eues de cesse, d’encarter la mobilisation des forces vives autour d’un objectif communément partagé en vue d’engorger les défis du développement dans le canevas de l’optimisation des ressources, de la nécessité absolue et logique, de faire émerger un cadre de concertation, y compris celui de gestion des conflits, qui naissent de la confrontation de l’exercice abusif ou contractuel des prérogatives par l’état et les revendications des groupes de pression, censés (groupes de pression), dans le cas d’espèce de la Guinée, de jouer un rôle prépondérant, dans la finalisation du processus de transition, pour en être non seulement un des sérieux instigateurs, mais aussi et surtout, de par son rôle de décrispation des crises, depuis l’organisation des élections présidentielles, laquelle organisation, a fait évoluer le rapport des forces politiques, au sein de l’échiquier politique national, par le biais de l’élection du leader du RPG à la présidence de la république, au point de nourrir désormais les différentes prises de positions politiques divergentes, parce que devenant protagoniste à part entière.
Fort de ces présupposés, fondateurs de toute action politique convergente et divergente actuelle, face au dénouement de l’histoire politique, je ne peux que demeurer, factice, voir postiche, indocile et séditieux, lors qu’il faut se trouver, une raison, à la hauteur des impératifs politiques, sociaux et économiques, pour fluidifier ses convictions résultant des collisions sporadiques, des réflexions et analyses, proposées en perspectives de résolution et de dénouement des crises.
De ce fait, il ne saurait subsister de zones d’ombre, ni d’abstractions, dans l’approche que nous nous faisons des problèmes collectifs, si l’on veut s’estimer pouvoir honorer les engagements, inscrits dans les annales de l’histoire politique de la Guinée, afin d’assortir les décisions émanant à la fois, du ressort du droit, des prérogatives politiques conférées, ainsi que de la rigueur économique, de marges d’action légitime et légale, s’extirpant du champ de l’incompétence, tout en favorisant une adhésion cumulative équivalent à sa consistance, son degré de coercition, y compris, sa portée innovative.
Pour ce faire, l’action politique, se mouvant entre les aléas et les perspectives en tous genres, ne se promeut, de surcroît en période de crise, d’une nature telle, qu’en s’enclenchant sou-tendue, par la volonté irréductible conférée par un seuil de légitimité conséquent, d’épuiser toutes les brèches de la légalité institutionnelle, la conformité avec les normes constitutionnelles et la situation de vide institutionnel, pour s’assurer de ne point se retrouver sur le terrain exigu de la violation tous azimut, des droits, dont le respect s’avérent, une condition siné quanone du rapprochement des vues, ainsi que de l’unité d’action.
En tout état de cause, en venir à la convocation devant la justice d’une trentaine d’opposants Guinéens, suite aux récentes manifestations politiques, survenues et à l’origine supposée d’une dizaine de morts, je constate néanmoins, que du point de vue, administratif et juridique, il ne peut se tenir une manifestation d’une telle ampleur sur le territoire national, sans préavis déposé auprès des services publics de l’état.
Si tel est le cas, il revient à l’état de prendre des dispositions concrètes, pour éviter toute violence, de nature à compromettre l’ordre, la quiétude et la sécurité des personnes et de leurs biens.
Eh oui, il peut même être jugé utile, que l’état commence par ordonner une enquête administrative interne, pour situer les responsabilités et ensuite procéder aux assignations en justice, pour doter l’exercice de son autorité, de préalables que rien ne puisse remettre en cause.
19 juillet 2011 Laisser un commentaire
ABSTRACT ARMATURE The brought to light of the sociopolitical situation, the structures of management and the current economic indicators reveals a catastrophic economic situation doubled by a politico social crisis of the most disturbing beyond any extrapolation. We are going to proceed at the moment to the analysis of some of the sectors without which to retie with the economic growth on one hand and on the other hand the bait(onset) of a sustainable and harmonious development would be imaginary. PLANNING ESSENTIAL CONDITION D DEVELOPMENT IN GUINEA The planning plays an essential role in the development of a country, it is the support of the economic success. The system of planning establishes(constitutes) the main part of the problem of the future of Guinea, because it seems non-existent, loose of power of real, apparently incompatible impulse with the political will posted(shown) by the leaders. Because he(it) seems to break with the art to make well from the point of view of the forecast, some dialogue and of the coordination in the overall policy of the government. The system of planning establishes (constitutes) one of the concepts all around of which articulates the present work, it is the essential concern (preoccupation) and the sous tightens(stretches out) my abstract approach(initiative) of the state structures. According to Jean Pierre Lorriaux in her(its) work *Economie Political Contemporaine* " She(It) would aim at preparing the collective future of a set of individuals by operating economic, social and cultural choices. For him all the difference between the systems of planning lives(lies) in the art To assure(insure) the efficiency of the action (share) allowing the realization of the development of collective projects ". The planning is an imperative action (share) which defines the orientation of the mode of production. Without a mastered planning any effort of socioeconomic recovery will be vain, because she has to be the summit of the pyramid of all the productive structures and allow the harmonious interaction of all the big political orientations of the government. Resolve the problem of the investment, the employment(use), the balance of the balance of trade, the greater mobilization of receipts(recipes), smooth running of the market as a matter of fact that It is for the level economic economic or macro microphone(microcomputing) the planning seems impassable for a reliable development. It is rightly that Jean-Baptiste De Foucault declared in the World(Monde) appeared the 26/05/1992 " the planning is indispensable to light(enlighten) the functioning of the market, define in common the ends(purposes) of the growth, assure(insure) the coherence of the public actions(shares) and the social cohesion. " One of the proofs of the lack of interest of the government with regard to the system of planning guinea shows itself in the difficulty which has the government to give a certain stability to this fundamental structure of the economic system, this afternoon She(It) was connected with the State Secretariat of the cooperation, this afternoon the ministry of economics and of finance. The various political systems which Guinea knew during its evolution, gave rise to the application of the corresponding systems of planning. If the 1°République used (wore out) the system of authoritarian planning with the various five year plans of development which relatively knew much more success, the functional structures of the 2°République contain so failures that we have difficulty in detecting the system of planning in the course of execution. The speech schedules(programs) of December 22nd, 1985 contained as a rule(in principle) the big political as a rule(in principle) the big political orientations of the project of company(society) which aspired the CMRN, but it seems nowadays that these objectives are out of reach for GENERAL CONTE. What makes that apparently since then we evolve without a real planning of the whole overall policy of development of the government. The government not being capable of specifying its objectives to take up with the growth Even less elaborate a plan of development with short, average and long term which can benefit from the approval of his(her) partners in the development, forces us to apply willy-nilly the structural programs or the ease of adjustment of the institutions of BRETTON WOOD. If we are not capable of planning our objectives of development through for example the PAP (action plan Person who has right of way), the PPE (priority program of execution) or still the RCB (rationalization of the budgetary choices) let us ask the economists in action (share) how they intend to begin(prime) the development of Guinea or to endow her(it) with basic structures allowing him(her) to evolve quickly towards his(her,its) objectives of development. I am aware(conscious) of the difficulty which there is even in countries the most developed to adopt the directives of the planning with certain unfavourable political situations, what is far from being the case in Guinea or he(it) reigns one Real anarchy in the management of the state structures. The various phases of conception and elaboration of the plan in term of dialogue have to know the implication of everything ministries through an interministerial committee, regional or prefectorial offices of the plan, a bigger implication of the economic and social council as well in the phase of conception as that of the elaboration of the plan, a CERES (center of study, economic and social search(research)) could also play a very important role in her(it) Conception and the elaboration of the plan would be what only in an advisory capacity. As a rule(in principle), Guinea should benefit from its sociopolitical evolution in all the domains, in particular in that of the system of planning. She does not have to give up all the aspects of the authoritarian planning, she owes on the contrary, be able to integrate(join) the positive aspects of the authoritarian planning into the supple(flexible) or indicative planning. The consideration of his(her,its) political past would be a necessary approach(initiative) to conceive a system of specific planning in the sociopolitical and economic context of moment. She could innovate in this domain if she agreed to rethink all the structural armature of the system of planning. The choice of the men(people) according to their speciality lives one of the conditions of the success of the planning, besides the stratification of the aimed political and economic objectives, the search(research) for ways and means to imply(involve) all the constituents of the company(society) to elaborate a vast program of development extending at least on 20ans and what nobody can Question even in case of alternation except the annual reframing or the adaptation of certain objectives to grant(tune) more flexibility to the planning. The notion of the continuity of the state must be cultivated and admitted within all the ruling class as being one of the essential conditions of the social and economic progress, she has to sou tighten(stretch out) the political intentions of everything the political parties of however obediences it is because the objective common and shared by all the political formations is to offer to these people ( Bruise by the suffering that he imposes illegally leaders ill-intentioned and inconsistent; under food(supply) which became the everyday life(daily paper) of most of the homes(foyers), the extreme poverty and the poverty which spreads within the common people, the joy of living which substitutes itself gradually in big city centers for the pessimism, for the generalized contesting, for the expression of the disgust and the hatred towards the ruling class), well-being, happiness and prosperity. Against this sad reality, to define the real outlines, unmask his(her) upholders and his(her,its) outcomes, try to place the responsibilities, finally, to propose surrounding areas of solution. In the last resort, the French model in planning should inspire us from the moment when most of our state structures are traced on the French model which colonized us, likened and left one prints indelible at once (at the same time) on our way of thinking, our conception of the politics(policy) and the notion of state, I cross (spend) it. If the planning does not establish(constitute) the main cause of the economic problems of Guinea (seen that it is her(it) which conditions(packages) a healthy and transparent management, favors the regulation of the mechanisms of the market, allows to define the mode of production with the aim of the balance progressive of the balance of trade and that of payments, etc.), he(it) is going to need to look for it. Of quite the manners, the planning would not know how to be a success for a government which makes his That is why *GUINEE WHICH DEVENIR* gives for vocation to go In the budgetary policy the execution of the spending (expenses), then their regularization what often gives a high rate of the margin of lack of foresight. Beyond, the loyalty of all the leaders in the political objectives that assigned the government also remains an essential condition of the development. The current configuration of the economic structures of Guinea, makes difficult the training of the economic balance sheet(assessment) of 44 years of independences, strewed with periods of prosperity and with regression, at least towards the various political systems which this country knew during its evolution, who (which) systems carried(wore) a blow of bat in its economy. In my opinion, the presentation of the economic balance sheet(assessment) of the management of the state by TOLD LANSANA will let glimpse a comparison of the periods of prosperity and real growth. For that purpose, it seems to me that The ideal would be to slow down(to slow) my report over the period emanating from 1984 in our days and to allow the readers to reveal the assets(trump cards) of period marked by a real will to forge ahead which is to be the period included between 1996-1999 that is the creation of Prime Minister's post for a perfect coordination of the governmental actions(shares) and the rest of the time. It emerges that of all the history(story) of the ministry of economics, the finances and the plan of the guinée, the lack of will, one passage of some men(people) proved us that the political Too big centralization of the procedures of payments, the relative freedom granted on the Ministers in the exercise of their mission is to be some fundamental causes of our delay. To do it, my report of the economic management takes me to analyze in a separated way some functional structures operating under the banner of the ministry of economics to allow a perfect illustration of this situation of economic slump. > given that the Ministry of Finance is subdivided into several national directions (managements), it seemed to me essential to focus my economic vision on big two Directions(Managements), (beyond that of the plan and the statistics which is doubtless the summit of the pyramid of the economic structural armature), that of the taxes and the treasure public, which establishes(constitutes) in my faith the base of the national budget and assures(insures) the smooth running of the others. The proper functioning of these two structures, a good demarcation of their field of expertise, the specification of the periodic objectives to achieve, the implementation of the effective and operational basic structures, the bigger rigor in the covering(collection) of receipts(recipes) Fiscal, a maid followed by the procedures of spending(expenses), the whole crowned by the implementation of reliable structures of control and regulation of the economic system because, the economic machine is above all managed by men(people) who are not shielded from the temptation, who have bodily needs to be satisfied, but who cannot be him on the whole in depends on their income wage, then seen say it proportion of their income and the needs which they are entitled to satisfy, he(it) would be more than logic, to elaborate a whole mechanism of control and regulation to place our economy out of reach budgétivores. On the other hand if GENERAL CONTE has an alibi in front of his disastrous management of the public deniers on the first 2 ) two years of his coming in the power, it would certainly be due to the analysis which follows .Il managed at me, in my analyses of the socio situation political and economic of Guinea, to approve any young few let him(it) go which was established in the management of the public moneys after the political change of 1984. Economically this fact asks the question of the capacity of the population to support(bear) the cost of the change. The passage of an economy based on the collective property of the means of production in a free market economy or semi liberal Characterized by the private property. The weakness of the purchasing power of the population in front of a market being wildly born liberalized gives a little more sense(direction) to let it go because, the weakness of the savings, the sacking of the monetary reserves inherited by the CMRN proved to this time(period) the incapacity of the state to be quickly answered the economic requirements of the change, the change which was not to doubt it too rough, THE TREASURY The configuration of the structures of the Ministry of Finance, lets glimpse a strategic position in the national direction(management) of the treasure, in the management of the public finances Of the state. Given, that it is a structure which manages the liquid assets(active persons) of the state, assures(insures) the payment of salaries, as well as the national debts, she would not know how to be outside any strategy, to clean up the public finances, restore a new breath in the economic structures and consequently bail out(refloat) the boxes(cashdesks) of the state, among which the financial needs, are widely above, of his(her,its) real financial means. To do it, increase the economic performances of the state, the pass inevitably by a reliable and shining finance, at least, with the aim of raising(drawing up) a rather clear picture(board) of the accounting(accounts department) National. The addition of the national accounting, the tax authorities in the national direction(management) of the treasure, is revealing of the role how many times important, devolved to this structure, in the conception, the elaboration and the evaluation of the budgetary resources of the state. The passage of a treasurer of training(formation), in the primature between 1996-1999, comes to consolidate the perception(collection) according to which, the control (master's degree) of the public finances of the state, (of the payment of salaries, in that of the scheme of pensions, the public investment etc.), quite as, to retie (take up) With the growth, pass, inevitably, by a consequent management of the treasury, which will allow to reveal, the real carrier sectors of growth, but also generators of funds(collections), to increase the cash flow of the state, where at least, to assure(insure) his (her,its) financial participation in the realization of the big projects of investment. The report resulting from the management of the treasury, that is, the national direction (management) and the network of the prefectorial finances and the local authorities, urges me to raise(to draw up) a rather dark balance sheet(assessment), tinged with an incredible financial mortar, to the glance, of the rigorous lack in the financial management of the state, the structures of modern and viable price control, the incompetence Notorious of certain frames(executives), quite as the disuse of the methods of management. This balance sheet(assessment), seems out of reach, where if you want, it contributed to sharpen the criticisms(critics), in front of the too questionable management and disputed by the financial structures of the state, because the revaluation of the payroll which seemed inconceivable (about 50 % of the national budget), had allowed to put in naked, practices which undermined and tarnished the image of the financial structures of the state. This revaluation facilitated the estimation of the financial means of the state, through the purification of the file of the public service, but also and especially the wasting of the public money and their diversion in which, was engaged (surrendered) the prefectorial treasurers, without that they expose(explain) themselves to no shape of penalty on behalf of the structures leaders. These prefectorial treasurers, who appeared to be small gods in their work of destruction of the public good, within the most put off villages, are Those aiming at the trimming of the work force of the public service, at least, those saw each other put aside, that in the continuation(suite), by the application of the measures in conformance with the FASR, in particular who failed during the organized test for that purpose. The broadcast(emission,issue) of Treasury bonds, to mitigate the rarity of funds(collections), conceives with not enough success, obligatorily and of skill (competence), because, the state continues to contract loans, without ever honoring its commitments towards the local creditors, at least in time. What makes that, the operations to emit(utter) Treasury bonds, fails generally, for the simple fact that few economic operators sign it. If the treasury is the administration asked to manage and to coordinate, the essential of the financial transactions of the state, he cannot, not make, the object of a particular concern(preoccupation), in the optics regain prestige economic structures of a state, among which the financial and economic difficulties, are, we cannot any more. THE TAX SYSTEM The tax system, quite as the finance, establishes (constitutes), an essential structure in the configuration of the Ministry of Finance, but also in the prospect (perspective) of greater mobilization of the receipts (recipes) of the state, the purification of the financial structures, the evaluation of the sphere of imposition (taxation), the good stratification of tax regimes, the prevention of the tax evasion, as well as all the forms of relative embezzlements, to the fiscal system. From this point of view, I can conceive her(it), as being, I want to speak of about it National direction(management) of the taxes (in the same logic as guinée which devenir2), the sum of all the divisions, the sections, the network of the prefectorial finances and the structures of the territorial regions, asked to perceive(collect) the taxes and the taxes, to pick up(to dislodge) the fiscal niches, to estimate the mass of imposition(taxation) and tax evasion, to promote and to stay up with care of the directives, emanating from the economic policy and the reforms stablished by the state. To do it, let us notice that the fiscal policy, suffers in Guinea, of grave in structural and legal torches, at least, in the optics, of the reconversion(retraining) of the sources(springs) of Income of the state, towards the international economic situation, towards the deterioration of the terms of exchange, the need of intensification of the capacity of automobile financing of the state, the increase of the budgetary receipts(recipes), to establish a rigorous fiscal policy and inclined, in the large-scale economic development. Runner, the report resulting from the functioning of the fiscal structures, reveals a real financial mortar, bound (connected) to the weakness of the rate of fiscal covering (collection), the anarchy development of the sector of the informal, badly encircled by the fiscal structures, that is, a margin of lack of foresight and considerable tax evasion, But also, of uncountable imperfections which know the economic structures of countries PPTE due to their similarity. Besides, the division of the values and the titles(securities), the national direction(management) of the taxes, establishes(constitutes) one in the important sources(springs) of financial embezzlements, and in the loss of income of fiscal receipts. It would be enough for it, to throw(cast) a critical glance, on the systems of administration of markets, which are, in the standards of important fiscal sources(springs) of perception(collection), the network of the prefectorial finances The regional offices(desks) of the customs, as well as most of the structures of perception(collection). If the past states, of a period of enormous wasting and diversion, that knew the prefectorial treasurers, who were considered as small gods within the most put off villages, nowadays, he(it) takes place of reconnaitre there, that the current period is, that of the thin cow, affecting(allocating) seriously the public finances of the state. Given that the taxes are of direct and indirect natures, the taxation of products in the import and the application of the VAT, should be able to better quantify tax revenues, why not re-revitalize the regulatory and structural frameworks. If the structural reforms, in Title of the FASR, recommended, a mixed management of the services of customs, in the objective to reassure(secure) the receipts(recipes) of the customs, which establishes(constitutes) to her only more than 40 % of the budgetary receipts(recipes), it is because the national accounting, presented a rather dark picture (board) where despicable of the fiscal capacities of the customs and its part in the national composition of the budget. Reason for which, the customs would take care only of the administrative procedure, whereas, the financial procedure is completely assigned to a private structure, afin So that the customs resumes(takes back) its place (square) of big suppliers of fund(collection,funds, collections) to the state. In the final analysis, it is necessary reconnaitre that in-depth reforms, are to be begun(undertaken) to allow the state to face its financial objectives and accroitre his(her,its) solvency towards its financial commitments towards his(her) partners in the development. > in any case, the ideal would be to reflect about the possibilities that we have to strengthen the politics(policy) of modern management of our economic structures to return our competitive, attractive economic system, the main part of our effort of which in term of capacity of mobilization of receipts(recipes) would be concentrated on the purification and the profitability more and more increased by the system Fiscal; not in the elaboration of a politics(policy) which grants(tunes) the superiority to the inventory of our unexploited mining resources, even when they are him, the deterioration of the terms of exchange makes that the receipts(recipes) which they generate are in constant decline. To see the curve of evolution of the mining receipts(recipes) within the national budget these last (30) years we realize at once that they considerably declined. 25 or 30 years ago, they established(constituted) the main part of the sources (springs) of currencies(slogans) and about 50 % of the receipts(recipes) of the state. Nowadays, the state appealed to the private capital, to return the more profitable sector, but the problem which settles(arises) is it in term of contract of exploitation(operation) and the intellectual capacity and Specific technique in every domain of the men(people) in charge of negotiating him(it). What makes that A major left contracts negotiated between 1984 - on 1995 whether it is in the field of the privatization of public enterprises, exploitation (operation) of the mining resources, the creation of the small factories, where still SMEs/SMIs, it takes there place to recognize that the success was never there. During this period, the growth which establishes(constitutes) the base of the creation of employment(use), the greater mobilization of the receipts(recipes) which guarantees for the balance of the budget, allows The control(master's degree) of the inflation were near that absent in the official vocabulary. The main objective of the government always was to assure(insure) regularly the payment of salaries to avoid the social rumbling discontents, at the price(prize) if it was necessary him(it) of the realization of bad economic performances, it, often by practising the banknote plate(printing of money) which is one of the notorious causes of the disproportionate inflation which knows the Guinea franc. The creation of the wealth adorned me essential to take up with the growth, because to take up with the growth, it is necessary to invest(surround) And to invest(surround), it is inevitably necessary to have capital which can be of internal origin or external. Seen the international current economic situation, the mobilization of foreign capital imposes prerequisites in internal management of the economic structures and certain number of legal guarantees because, it takes there place to recognize that foreign capital can result from the bilateral, multilateral cooperation or from the private origin: